You might not want to think about this, but over 3500 species of cockroaches live on this planet.
你可能压根不想要想到这个，但有超过 3500 种蟑螂，在这个星球上生活
The good news?
Only about 30 of those species have adapted to live around humans.
其中仅有 30 种，已适应能以人类为居
The bad news?
30 species of cockroaches can live around us!
有 30 种蟑螂能和我们为居！
Roaches are one of the most common pests in the US.
So it's no surprise that humans are always trying to kill them.
But no matter how many times we stomp them,
squash them, and bomb them with toxic chemicals, these pesky pests always seem to pop up time and time again.
So what's going on?
Let's take a closer look at the roach you probably know better than you'd like.
Aka, the American Cockroach.
But this name is misleading.
This guy is actually from Africa, not America.
It made its way to the US by infesting boats in the 16th century, and it's been spreading to almost every corner in the world ever since.
它们 16 世纪时群居跟着船只沿路来到美国，自此，就在世界各个角落散播开来
It turns out, it's one of the largest species of cockroach around.
But that's not the only big thing about it.
New research has revealed that it has a massive genome.
One of the largest of any studied insect.
And may of these genes are exactly what make this roach a master survivor.
Let's start with the genes associated with something called Chemoreception.
That's how roaches smell and taste their environment.
Turns out they're actually way better at sniffing out and eating food than most other insects.
The American roach has 154 olfactory receptors for smell, and 544 gustatory receptors for taste.
美洲蟑螂有 154 个嗅觉感官以及 544 个供尝味的味觉感官
More than any other insect on the planet.
As a result, these cockroaches are not picky eaters.
Sure, they like cheese, meat and sugar like the rest of us, but they'll also go for things like cardboard, book bindings, human toenails, rotting meat, blood, excrement, and even each other.
That's right, these roaches have been known to eat other dead or crippled cockroaches, all in the name of survival.
It sounds gross, but this diverse diet makes it easy to find a meal just about anywhere, even if it's poisonous to most animals.
This roach has a bunch of genes called Cytochrome P450s, which help it withstand poisonous chemicals, like peppermint.
这种蟑螂有许多叫做 Cytochrome P450s 的基因 会帮助它们自己承受有毒化学物质，像是薄荷油
These genes code for detoxification enzymes, which keep the insect safe.
On top of that, this roach has a super-strong immune system that seeks out and kills harmful microbes and fungi, making the most unsanitary environment look like a five-start hotel to the American cockroach.
Not gross enough yet?
Well consider this.
Cockroaches can live nearly a week without their heads.
Yeah, that's not a myth.
They don't have a highly pressurized network of blood vessels like humans, so they don't bleed out.
Instead, their necks actually seal off the opening.
They can't regenerate a whole head, but roaches to have an impressive set of regenerative superpowers.
For up to the first two years of its life, the American roach goes through a series of regenerative molts as it matures into an adult.
During a single molt stage, it can replace lost limbs.
And over a series of molts, it can regrow antennae and even its eyes.
Roaches may be hard to kill, but there's an easy way to keep them clear of your kitchen.
A roach just won't survive in unsanitary conditions, it actually enjoys it.
Its heightened senses mean it actually relishes rotting food.
So, store food in airtight containers.
Cover trash bins, and keep your basement dry.
It might also be smart to plug holes in your walls, unused electrical outlets, and especially drains, since get this, roaches can use your plumbing to climb up from sewers into your bathroom sink.
It might not eliminate the risk entirely, but it can't hurt, and it will certainly make you feel better.
However, we can't promise it will keep them out of your nightmares.